Located between the Black and Caspian Seas, Armenia is bordered on the north and east by Georgia and Azerbaijan, and on the south and west by Iran and Turkey.
The Republic of Armenia, covering an area of 11,600 square miles (30,000 square kilometres) is located in the north-east of the Armenian Highland. The highland, covering 154,000 square miles (400,000km2), is considered to be the original homeland of Armenians. Armenia is slightly smaller than the state of Maryland in the United States.
Twenty-five million years ago, a geological upheaval pushed up the earth's crust to form the Armenian Plateau, creating the complex topography of modern Armenia. The lesser Caucasus range extends through northern Armenia, runs southeast between Lake Sevan and Azerbaijan, then passes roughly along the Armenian-Azerbaijani border to Iran. Thus situated, the mountains make travel from north to south difficult.
The terrain is mostly mountainous, with fast flowing rivers and few forests. The climate is highland continental, which means that the country is subjected to hot summers and cold winters. The land rises to 13,435 feet (4095 meters) above sea-level at Mount Aragats, and no point is below 1312 feet (400 meters) above sea level.