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There is a total of 1,042,300 km (647,700 mi) of roads in Canada, of which 415,600 km (258,200 mi) are paved, including 17,000 km (11,000 mi) of expressways (the third-longest in the world, behind the Interstate Highway System of the United States and the China's National Trunk Highway System). As of 2008, 626,700 km (389,400 mi) were unpaved.

In 2009, there were 20,706,616 road vehicles registered in Canada, of which 96% were vehicles under 4.5 tonnes (4.4 long tons; 5.0 short tons), 2.4% were vehicles between 4.5 and 15 t (4.4 and 15 long tons; 5.0 and 17 short tons) tonnes and 1.6% were 15 t (15 long tons; 17 short tons) or greater. These vehicles travelled a total of 333.29 billion kilometres, of which 303.6 billion was for vehicles under 4.5 t (4.4 long tons; 5.0 short tons), 8.3 billion was for vehicles between 4.5 and 15 t (4.4 and 15 long tons; 5.0 and 17 short tons) and 21.4 billion was for vehicles over 15 t (15 long tons; 17 short tons). For the 4.5 to 15 t (4.4 to 15 long tons; 5.0 to 17 short tons) trucks, 88.9% of vehicle-kilometres were intra-province trips, 4.9% were inter-province, 2.8% were between Canada and the US and 3.4% made outside of Canada. For trucks over 15 t (15 long tons; 17 short tons), 59.1% of vehicle-kilometres were intra-province trips, 20% inter-province trips, 13.8% Canada-US trips and 7.1% trips made outside of Canada.

In 2007, Canada had a total of 72,212 km (44,870 mi) of freight and passenger railway, of which 31 km (19 mi) is electrified.[citation needed] While intercity passenger transportation by rail is now very limited, freight transport by rail remains common. Total revenues of rail services in 2006 was $10.4 billion, of which only 2.8% was from passenger services. The Canadian National and Canadian Pacific Railway are Canada's two major freight railway companies, each having operations throughout North America. In 2007, 357 billion tonne-kilometres of freight were transported by rail, and 4.33 million passengers travelled 1.44 billion passenger-kilometres (an almost negligible amount compared to the 491 billion passenger-kilometres made in light road vehicles). 34,281 people were employed by the rail industry in the same year.

Nation-wide passenger services are provided by the federal crown corporation Via Rail. Three Canadian cities have commuter rail services: in the Montreal area by AMT, in the Toronto area by GO Transit, and in the Vancouver area by West Coast Express. Smaller railways such as Ontario Northland, Rocky Mountaineer, and Algoma Central also run passenger trains to remote rural areas.

In Canada railways are served by standard gauge, 4 ft 8 1/2 in (1,435 mm), rails. See also track gauge in Canada.

Canada has rail links with the lower 48 US States, but no connection with Alaska other than a train ferry service from Prince Rupert, British Columbia, although a line has been proposed.There are no other international rail connections.